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Learning Java OOP: What are the functions of 'this' and 'super' in Java?

Java This Super
Keywords thisand superoften appear in Java programs.
What is the function?
On this occasion, we will discuss it ...
Make sure you have read the Java OOP: Inheritance tutorial .
Because it is very related to our discussion here.
OK.
Let's start tips ...

Functions thisin Java

In the previous tutorial, we learned about setter and gettermethods .
There we use keywords thisto fill variables.
Example:
class User {
    private String username;
    private String password;

    // ini method setter
    public void setUsername(String username){
        this.username = username;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password){
        this.password = password;
    }

    // ini method getter
    public String getUsername(){
        return this.username;
    }

    public String getPassword(){
        return this.password;
    }
}
See! thiswe use on each method.
Consider one method:
public void setUsername(String username){
    this.username = username;
}
What if we delete thisthis method?
public void setUsername(String username){
    username = username;
}
What will happen?
Yak! the computer will be confused ...
Because they don't know usernamewhich variable is meant.
Is the variable in class ( private String username) or the variable usernamein the parameter.
Method without this
If we touch the warning balloon on the side, we will get a message: "Assignment To Itself" .
Self Assignment
This means that the variable fills itself.
Therefore, we must use thisto declare the variable in question is the variable that is in the class.
public void setUsername(String username){
    this.username = username;
}
So…
The keyword is thisused as a reference from the class itself.
Still confused?
Okay, then ... every time you thistry to use this view:
this means the class itself.
For example there is another class:
class Person {
    private String name;

    public void setName(String name){
        this.name = name;
    }
}
So thiswhat is meant by that class is class Person.
Can we use thisoutside the class?
Not.
this can only be used in class.
Try making a function main()then use it thisthere. Then what will happen is ...
This keyword on play
Yak! the program will error.
Because the variable we are trying to access from main()is a non-static variable.
... and thiscannot be used on main().

Functions superin Java

If it thisrepresents an object of the class itself, it superwill represent the object of the parent class.
Consider this example:
We try to make the class Personthat will be the parent class or super class.
public class Person {
    String name = "Petanikode";
    int age = 22;
}
Then, we create derived classes (sub classes), namely: class Employee.
public class Employee extends Person {
    
    float salary = 4000f;
    String name = "Dian";
    int age = 23;
      
    public void showInfo(){
        System.out.println("Name: " + super.name);
        System.out.println("Age: " + super.age);
        System.out.println("Salary: $" + salary);
    }
}
Next we create a class Demoto create objects and methods main().
public class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Employee dian = new Employee("Dian", 23, 4000f);
        
        dian.showInfo();
    }
}
Now try executing the class Demo, what is the output?
Program with parent keywords
Why are the outputs like this?
Because in the method showInfo()we use keywords superto take the value of the variables that are in the parent class (super class) .
public void showInfo(){
    System.out.println("Name: " + super.name);
    System.out.println("Age: " + super.age);
    System.out.println("Salary: $" + salary);
}
Try changing superto this...
public void showInfo(){
    System.out.println("Name: " + this.name);
    System.out.println("Age: " + this.age);
    System.out.println("Salary: $" + salary);
}
... then the output will be like this.
Program with the parent keyword and this
The value taken is the value of the class Employee, because itthisrepresents the class Employeewhile superrepresenting the parent classes, namely: Person.
In this case, we use superas an object to take value.
The keyword super()can also be used to call the ternetu method from the parent class.
Example:
// mengeksekusi konstruktor induk
super();

// mengeksekusi sebuah method dari class induk
super.namaMethod();
Let's try ...
We change the class Personto something like this:
public class Person {

    public Person() {
        System.out.println("Eksekusi konstruktor Person()");
    }
    
    public void showMessage(){
        System.out.println("Hello, ini pesan dari class Person...");
    }
}
Then Employeewe change the class to something like this:
public class Employee extends Person {

    public Employee() {
        // eksekusi konstruktor induk
        super();
        
        System.out.println("Ekekusi konstruktor Employee()");
    }
    
    public void info(){
        super.showMessage();
    }
}
Then in the class Demo, we change it to something like this:
public class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Employee dian = new Employee();
        
        dian.info();
    }
}
Now try executing the class Demo, the output will look like this:
Call super metho
Notice the class Employee, in the constructor we execute the master constructor with super().
Then, in the method info(), we execute the method showMessage() from the parent with super.showMessage().
Then the results, will be as above.

How is the Application thisand superthe Real World?

The examples above might sound abstract, because it is impossible for us to make such a program in the real world.
Well, we will try to look at some examples of programs in the real world that use thisand super.
import javax.swing.JFrame;

public class MainWindow extends JFrame {

    public MainWindow(){
        this.setTitle("Jendela Utama");
        this.setSize(600,320);
    }
    
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        MainWindow mWindow = new MainWindow();
        mWindow.setVisible(true);
    }
}    
In the program, we create a class MainWindow by extends from the class JFrame.
In this program, it is thisused to represent the classMainWindowin the constructor.
public MainWindow(){
    this.setTitle("Jendela Utama");
    this.setSize(600,320);
}
Method setTitle()and setSize()obtained from the Parent class ( JFrame). Because we extends from there.
Why not use super?
Because what we want to change titleand sizeis class MainWindow, not class JFrame.
Second , try to look MainActivityat the class on Android .
public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        Toast.makeText(this, "Activity: onCreate()", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }
}
Pay attention ...
In classes MainActivity, we use superto call methodsonCreate()from the parent class ( AppCompatActivity).
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
Then we use it thison Toast.makeText()thisin this case it will represent the class MainActivity.
There are many more examples of use thisand super in the real world.
Please find yourself ... ✌️

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